Insecticides (from Latin inseñtum – insect and caedo – to kill) is a group of pesticide derivatives. They are used to control insects – pests of agricultural crops. In addition to products designed specifically for the extermination of insects, the group includes acaricides (from Greek akari – tick and Latin caedo – to kill) – products for killing ticks.
By mechanism of action, insecticides can be divided into the following categories:
• Contact – cause insect paralysis and death through the external contact with any part of insect’s body.
• Intestinal – toxic substances enter the intestine with food and cause death of insects.
• Systemic - These products are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, penetrate xylem and make its juice toxic for insects. This group also includes translaminar products transported to xylem directly from plant leaves.
Import of Insecticides and Acaricides into Russia
Import of insecticides and acaricides into Russia has been characterized by a continuous growth: from 2006 to 2008 there was almost a 3.5-fold increase.
Products of the following three groups dominate in the structure of supplies: organophosphorus compounds (OPC), synthetic pyrethroids and nicotinoids. The share of these products makes up 90.2% of the physical volume of supplies and 83% of the estimated total import value.
The leading position in terms of the physical volume of supplies is held by Cheminova A/C Company. Cheminova A/C is importing its products into Russia through “Investagroprom-Ryazan” Company. The same Russian company provides its transportation and storage services to Syngenta Crop Protection and Agro-chemie KFT. Later on, products of these manufacturers are distributed by the Russian Divisions of such companies as Cheminova LLC, Syngenta LLC and Agro-chemie LLC. Syngenta Crop Protection holds the second position with regard to the physical volume of supplied products. However, by the volume cost estimate it is far ahead of other manufacturers of imported products.
Similar product volumes are supplied to the market by such manufacturers as Makhteshim Agan Industries (Israel) and Basf AG. Products of Basf AG are brought to the Russian market through the Russian Representative Office of the Close Joint Stock Company (JSC) “Basf.” Makhteshim Agan Industries products are imported by such facilities as “Arista LifeScience Vostok” LLC, “Reserv-Magros” JSC, and ANPP “Agrokhim XXI” LLC. Company Bayer is also cooperating with an importer – PTO “Agropromservice” LLC.
Organophosphorus compounds (OPC). Every year, up to 20 brands of organophosphorus compounds are imported into Russia, and the volume of their supplies is growing steadily. The highest demand covers diazinon derivatives (33% of the overall import volume of OPC in 2008) and dimethoate (47.4% in 2008).
Synthetic pyrethroids. The range of imported products representing the synthetic pyrethroid group includes 24 brands. The most popular products include lambda-cygalotrin derivatives: 49% of the total volume of imported products from this group. The most commonly imported lambda-cygalotrin derivative is Karate Zeon made by Syngenta Crop Protection.
Nicotinoids. Nicotinoids are leaders in terms of the cost estimate value. The range of imported nicotinoids is rather limited and includes no more than 6 names manufactured by five companies. The share of three leaders - Syngenta Crop Protection, Nippon Soda Co., Ltd and Bayer AG makes up 87% of the physical volume of imported products of this group and 91% of the aggregate cost.
Domestic Production of Insecticides and Acaricides
The domestic production of insecticides in Russia is characterized by a positive growth trend. In parallel with the overall growth of production output, certain obvious changes in its qualitative structure are taking place. The share of synthetic pyrethroids and nicotinoids increased in the overall volume of manufactured products and it was considered as a key trend for the period of 2006-08. In 2006, synthetic nicotinoids made up 42% and in 2008 their portion reached 50%. There was almost a three-fold increase of nicotinoid production and thus it reached 6% in the overall output. At the same time, the production of OPC derivatives does not demonstrate any tendencies to growth.
The internal structure of production of individual chemical groups is characterized by the following trends. Among OPC products the proportion of diazinon derivatives is growing: in 2006 the production volume was about 62 tons and in 2008 it achieved 200 tons. Negative dynamics was demonstrated for dimethoate derivatives: their production dropped from 840 to 620 tons per year. As to synthetic pyrethroids, the highest production volume was reported for alpha-cypermethrin (around 600 tons/year) and cypermethrin (around 500 tons/year). The major share in nicotinoids’ group falls on imidaclopride (around 115-130 tons/year).
The JSC “Firma Avgust” is a leader in the production of insecticides and acaricides in the Russian market; its share in the overall production volume is as high as nearly 30%. The JSC “Shchelkovo Agrokhim” runs second with the share of 15%.
The JSC “Firma Avgust” and the JSC “Shchelkovo Agrokhim” are the top two companies in the Russian market of insecticides and acaricides. Each of the other companies is contributing similar shares around 4-6.5% to the production output.
Numerous companies producing brand insecticides do not have their own production facilities. The JSC “Basf,” “Agro Expert Grupp” LLC and “Agrokhim XXI” manufacture their products in the facilities of the VJSC “Khimprom.” “Agro Expert Grupp” LLC manufactures its products at the production facility of “Agrorus” LLC.
Export of Insecticides and Acaricides
In 2006-08, export of insecticides and acaricides from Russia increased almost by twice. The most noticeable growth was seen in 2008, when the export volume was almost twice higher than a year before. However, export level is still very low as compared with the total volume of offered commercially available insecticides and acaricides.
Export growth took place against the increase in supplies of synthetic pyrethroids. Synthetic pyrethroids form the most significant group of exported products: in 2008 their share was 66%. The most popular exported products of this group include Fascord (manufactured by the JSC “Shchelkovo Agrokhim,” an alpha-cypermethrin derivative) and “Sharpei” (manufactured by the JSC “Firma Avgust”, a cypermethrin derivative). These two products make up 88% of supplied synthetic pyrethroids, and from 2006 to 2008 the volume of their export increased by five times. The second position in terms of the physical export volume is held by organophosphorus compounds. A considerable proportion in OPC group consists of products in small packages designed for the use in private farms (in particular, a product called “Grom”). A significant volume of OPC export falls on insecticide “Grizzly” (the JSC “Firma Avgust”).
The third position in terms of the physical export volume is held by nicotinoids (9% of the overall volume). Export of nicotionids was rather stable in the period of 2006-2008. The largest share is made up by insecticides manufactured the JSC “Firma Avgust,” “Tanrek,” and “Biotlin” (the both products are imidaclopride derivatives).
From Russia insecticides are exported mainly to CIS countries. Ukraine and Kazakhstan are the major countries for the Russian export of insecticides and acaricides. In 2008, the volume of products supplied to Ukraine reached 48.8% of the total export volume (a two-fold growth vs. 2006). Kazakhstan runs second in terms of the physical export volume followed by Moldavia which holds the third position.
Volume of the Market of Insecticides
The market volume increased primarily due to the growth of import supplies. In addition, the domestic production output is also growing. The Russian market is characterized by a trend to the reduction of a share of domestic products vs. imported products. Thus in 2006, the ratio of domestic to imported products was 60% to 40%, and in 2008 - 35% to 65%, respectively.